Experimental confirmation of the existence of the three-electron bond and theoretical basis of its existence OK
Publication date June 2015
Bezverkhniy Volodymyr (viXra): http://vixra.org/author/bezverkhniy_volodymyr_dmytrovych
Bezverkhniy Volodymyr (Scribd):
Bezverkhniy Volodymyr (Scribd):
We can check experimentally: if the three-electron bond and interaction through the cycle are real, then it logically follows the bending real chemical bond density in benzene into benzene. It is important that the maximum density of the chemical bond will be shifted to the center of the benzene cycle link, which is what we are seeing in the atomic force microscopy images (AFM) pentacene.
Analysis of images made in techniques of atomic force microscopy (AFM) of high
resolution in pentacene and other aromatic systems shows that according to predictions, aromatic three-electron bond is deflected to the centre of aromatic nuclei, which clearly confirms the fact of existence of three-electron bond in benzene, pentacene and other aromatic systems. It also confirms the existence of this bond in carboxylate anions and other similar ions and molecules.
Experimental predicted effects: anti-aromatic system (core system) should be flat in order to make it through the interaction cycle. Therefore, to obtain photos and AFM antiaromatic cyclobutadiene cyclooctatetraene must be on a special matrix to consolidate their atoms to make the system perfect planarity (to make it through the interaction cycle), and after that, take a picture AFM permission. And if anti-aromatic photo is received, then we should see a shift of three-electron bonds outside the cycle, and, the picture will be in pentatsene but the loop (p. 4 – 5).
Now the question is how to explain the existence of the three-electron bond in benzene and other molecules and ions from the point of view of quantum theory. It stands to reason that any placement of three electrons on the same atomic or molecular orbital is out of the question. Therefore it is necessary to lay the existence of three-electron bond in molecules in reality as an axiom. In this case the three- electron bond in benzene can be actually considered a semi-virtual particle. A real particle, such as an electron, exists in the real world for indefinitely long time. Virtual particles exist for the time which is insufficient for experimental registration (strong interactions in atomic nuclei). So we shall call the three- electron bond which really exists for indefinitely long time only in molecules and ions a semi-virtual particle. The three-electron bond as a semi-virtual particle has certain characteristics: its mass is equal to three electronic masses, its charge is equal to three electronic charges, it has half-integer spin (plus, minus 1/2) and a real spatial extension. That is, our semi-virtual particle (the three-electron bond) is a typical fermion. Fermions are particles with half-integer spin; they follow the Fermi-Dirac statistics, and have appropriate consequences, such as the Pauli exclusion principle etc. An electron is a typical fermion, and therefore such distribution in atomic and molecular orbitals is accepted (calculated). It follows that the three-electron bond in benzene is a real fermion in benzene, so quantum calculations can be extended to the molecule of benzene (and other systems) with the use of corresponding fermion (i.e. three- electron bond as a particle) instead of the electron in calculations. Then everything shall be made as usual: the Pauli exclusion principle, distribution in MO, binding and disintegrating MO, etc.
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